Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari
Robot humanoid memainkan trompet
Robot adalah sebuah alat mekanik yang dapat melakukan tugas fisik, baik menggunakan pengawasan dan kontrol manusia, ataupun menggunakan program yang telah didefinisikan terlebih dulu (kecerdasan buatan). Robot biasanya digunakan untuk tugas yang berat, berbahaya, pekerjaan yang berulang dan kotor. Biasanya kebanyakan robot industri digunakan dalam bidang produksi. Penggunaan robot lainnya termasuk untuk pembersihan limbah beracun, penjelajahan bawah air dan luar angkasa, pertambangan, pekerjaan “cari dan tolong” (search and rescue), dan untuk pencarian tambang. Belakangan ini robot mulai memasuki pasaran konsumen di bidang hiburan, dan alat pembantu rumah tangga, seperti penyedot debu, dan pemotong rumput.
[sunting] Perkembangan sekarang
Ketika para pencipta robot pertama kali mencoba meniru manusia dan hewan, mereka menemukan bahwa hal tersebut sangatlah sulit; membutuhkan tenaga penghitungan yang jauh lebih banyak dari yang tersedia pada masa itu. Jadi, penekanan perkembangan diubah ke bidang riset lainnya. Robot sederhana beroda digunakan untuk melakukan eksperimen dalam tingkah laku, navigasi, dan perencanaan jalur. Teknik navigasi tersebut telah berkembang menjadi sistem kontrol robot otonom yang tersedia secara komersial; contoh paling mutakhir dari sistem kontrol navigasi otonom yang tersedia sekarang ini termasuk sistem navigasi berdasarkan-laser dan VSLAM (Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) dari ActivMedia Robotics dan Evolution Robotics.
Ketika para teknisi siap untuk mencoba robot berjalan kembali, mereka mulai dengan heksapoda dan platform berkaki banyak lainnya. Robot-robot tersebut meniru serangga dan arthropoda dalam bentuk dan fungsi. Tren menuju jenis badan tersebut menawarkan fleksibilitas yang besar dan terbukti dapat beradaptasi dengan berbagai macam lingkungan, tetapi biaya dari penambahan kerumitan mekanikal telah mencegah pengadopsian oleh para konsumer. Dengan lebih dari empat kaki, robot-robot ini stabil secara statis yang membuat mereka bekerja lebih mudah. Tujuan dari riset robot berkaki dua adalah mencapai gerakan berjalan menggunakan gerakan pasif-dinamik yang meniru gerakan manusia. Namun hal ini masih dalam beberapa tahun mendatang.
Masalah teknis lain yang menghalangi penerapan robot secara meluas adalah kompleksitas penanganan obyek fisik dalam lingkungan alam yang tetap kacau. Sensor taktil dan algoritma penglihatan yang lebih baik mungkin dapat menyelesaikan masalah ini. Robot Online UJI dari University Jaume I di Spanyol adalah contoh yang bagus dari perkembangan yang berlaku dalam bidang ini.
Belakangan ini, perkembangan hebat telah dibuat dalam robot medis, dengan dua perusahaan khusus, Computer Motion dan Intuitive Surgical, yang menerima pengesahan pengaturan di Amerika Utara, Eropa dan Asia atas robot-robotnya untuk digunakan dalam prosedur pembedahan minimal. Otomasi laboratorium juga merupakan area yang berkembang. Di sini, robot benchtopdigunakan untuk memindahkan sampel biologis atau kimiawi antar perangkat seperti inkubator, berupa pemegang dan pembaca cairan. Tempat lain dimana robot disukai untuk menggantikan pekerjaan manusia adalah dalam eksplorasi laut dalam dan eksplorasi antariksa. Untuk tugas-tugas ini, bentuk tubuh artropoda umumnya disukai. Mark W. Tilden dahulunya spesialis Laboratorium Nasional Los Alamos membuat robot murah dengan kaki bengkok tetapi tidak menyambung, sementara orang lain mencoba membuat kaki kepiting yang dapat bergerak dan tersambung penuh.
Robot bersayap eksperimental dan contoh lain mengeksploitasi biomimikri juga dalam tahap pengembangan dini. Yang disebut “nanomotor” dan “kawat cerdas” diperkirakan dapat menyederhanakan daya gerak secara drastis, sementara stabilisasi dalam penerbangan nampaknya cenderung diperbaiki melalui giroskop yang sangat kecil. Dukungan penting pekerjaan ini adalah untuk riset militer teknologi pemata-mataan.
[sunting] Konstruksi robot
Robot memiliki berbagai macam konstruksi. Diantaranya adalah:
* Robot Mobile ( bergerak )
* Robot Manipulator ( tangan )
* Robot Humanoid
* Flying Robot
* Robot Berkaki
* Robot jaringan
* Robot Animalia
Diperoleh dari “http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot”
* Versi terdahulu
* Coba Beta
* Masuk log / buat akun
* Halaman Utama
* Perubahan terbaru
* Peristiwa terkini
* Halaman sembarang
* Warung Kopi
* Portal komunitas
* Tentang Wikipedia
* Buat buku
* Unduh sebagai PDF
* Versi cetak
* Pranala balik
* Perubahan terkait
* Halaman istimewa
* Pranala permanen
* Kutip halaman ini
* Norsk (nynorsk)
* Norsk (bokmål)
* Simple English
* Српски / Srpski
* Basa Sunda
* Uyghurche / ئۇيغۇرچە
* Tiếng Việt
The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.
There is conflict about whether the term can be applied to remotely operated devices, as the most common usage implies, or solely to devices which are controlled by their software without human intervention. In South Africa, robot is an informal and commonly used term for a set of traffic lights.
Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history but fully autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.
It is difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries, since there are different definitions of what a “robot” is. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of robot in ISO 8373: “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.” This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and many national standards committees.
The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a “re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.” The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.
There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own. For example, Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: “I can’t define a robot, but I know one when I see one.” According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, a robot is “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner”. Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a “machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being”, or a “device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks”, or a “mechanism guided by automatic controls”.
Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference. Because of this, most humans rarely encounter robots. However, domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries, particularly in Japan. Robots can also be found in the military.
While there is no single correct definition of “robot,” a typical robot will have several, or possibly all, of the following characteristics.
It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli. This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.
KITT is mentally anthropomorphic, while ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic
For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled. The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are not necessary, as shown by ant robots.
* A clockwork car is never considered a robot.
* A remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot).
* A car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence, might be called a robot.
* A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information, such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, would quite likely be called a robot.
* A sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.
However, for many laymen, if a machine appears to be able to control its arms or limbs, and especially if it appears anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO or Aibo), it would be called a robot.
* A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot.
* A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot.
* A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot.
* An autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle, is almost always characterized as a mobile robot or service robot.
* A zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot.
* A mechanical humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot, usually as a service robot.
Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm, it is the arm which is almost always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. Having eyes can also make a difference in whether a machine is called a robot, since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. However, simply being anthropomorphic is not a sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. A robot must do something; an inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot.
See also: Robots in literature
A scene from Karel Čapek’s 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), showing three robots
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, but they are closer to the modern ideas of androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment.
However, Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother, the painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual originator. In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři (from Latin labor, work). However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested “roboti”. The word robota means literally work, labor or serf labor, and figuratively “drudgery” or “hard work” in Czech and many Slavic languages. Traditionally the robota was the work period a serf had to give for his lord, typically 6 months of the year. Serfdom was outlawed in 1848 in Bohemia, so at the time Čapek wrote R.U.R., usage of the term robota had broadened to include various types of work, but the obsolete sense of “serfdom” would still have been known.
The word robotics, used to describe this field of study, was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.
As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots’ behavior, and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights. One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019. Others predict robot intelligence breakthroughs by 2050. Recent advances have made robotic behavior more sophisticated.
Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students with the company FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics Competition, FIRST LEGO League, Junior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions.
Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this “the Singularity.” He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans. This is discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism.
In 2009, experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard. They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved “cockroach intelligence.” They noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls. Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some inherent concerns.
Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions. There are also concerns about technology which might allow some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots. The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions. One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could make decisions more effectively. However, other experts question this.
Some public concerns about autonomous robots have received media attention. One robot in particular, the EATR, has generated concerns over its fuel source as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances. Although the engine for the EATR is designed to run on biomass and vegetation specifically selected by its sensors which can find on battlefields or other local environments the project has stated that chicken fat can also be used.
Another significant military robot is the SWORDS robot, which is currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of weapons, and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.
Unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), which are an upgraded form of UAVs, can do a wide variety of missions, including combat. UCAVs are being designed such as the Mantis UCAV which would have the ability to fly themselves, to pick their own course and target, and to make most decisions on their own.
The AAAI has studied this topic in depth and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.
Some have suggested a need to build “Friendly AI”, meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane. Several such measures reportedly already exist, with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea having begun to pass regulations requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems, and possibly sets of ‘laws’ akin to Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics. An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government’s Robot Industry Policy Committee. Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules, as well as a set of new legal guidelines referred to as “Robot Legal Studies.” Some concern has been expressed over a possible occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehoods.
Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is Evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent “generation” of robots. Another method is Developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.
Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.
As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots. Robot Operating System (ROS) is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others. ROS provides ways to program a robot’s navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a robot’s computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots’ limbs. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a “Windows for robots” system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007.
New functions and abilities
The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator.
Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction. As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would: 1. clean parts by removing molding flash 2. spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. make electrical cable harness 5. load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. shear sheep 8. prosthesis 9. cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. household robot.
Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.
See also: Robotics — Robot Research
While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world. Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized.
A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding some silicon nanowires.
Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Also known as nanobots or nanites, they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning. Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce, the earth would turn into “grey goo”, while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.
A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task, like the fictional T-1000. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours, for example SuperBot. Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality.
Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, and ferrofluids), controlled using fuzzy logic and neural networks, look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and are capable of different behaviors.
A swarm of robots from the Open-source Micro-robotic Project
Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm, the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project and the Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to research collective behaviors. Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure can be extremely costly.
Haptic interface robots
Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. These robots, called “haptic interfaces,” allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of “virtual” objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch. Haptic interfaces are also used in robot-aided rehabilitation.
Varying cultural perceptions
Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa. 30% of all the robots in the world are in Japan. This means that Japan has the most robots in the world out of all the countries, and is in fact leading the world’s robotics. Japan is actually said to be the robotic capital of the world.
In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there is thought to be possibly due to the famous ‘Astro Boy’. Asian societies such as Japan, South Korea, and more recently, China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc. The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better, which is the opposite of the Western belief.
“This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist,” says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan. South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020 in order to help catch up technologically with Japan.
Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans. Some believe that the West regards robots as a ‘threat’ to the future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society. Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.
See also: List of Robots
TOPIO, a humanoid robot that can play ping-pong.
At present there are 2 main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots.
Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.
General-purpose autonomous robots
It has been suggested that Open-source robotics#Uses be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)
General-purpose autonomous robots are robots that can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks. General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.
A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at night
Types of robots
Main articles: Service robot and Industrial robot
A Pick and Place robot in a factory
At the end of 2008, there were over 1 million industrial robots and an estimated 7 million service robots in use. Industrial robot, as defined by ISO 8373, is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.” Most commonly, industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods. The term “service robot” is less well-defined. IFR has proposed a tentative definition, “A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations.”
Robots increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance
Automation increases productivity, improves reliability and reduces the price of goods, such automobiles and electronics.
Some examples of factory robots
Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.
An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace
Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.
Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy. Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs)
Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.
Early AGV-Style Robots
Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors (sensors). The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation.
Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes. Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.
Intelligent AGVs (i-AGVs)
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq
Such as SpeciMinder, ADAM, Tug and MT 400 with Motivity are designed for people-friendly workspaces. They navigate by recognizing natural features. 3D scanners or other means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning calculations of the AGV’s current position. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms. They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses. For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies using three-dimensional sensors such as time-of-flight or stereovision cameras.
Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks
There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning, or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano. Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as exploring another planet, cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.
Almost every unmanned space probe ever launched was a robot. Some were launched in the 1960s with more limited abilities, but their ability to fly and to land (in the case of Luna 9) is an indication of their status as a robot. This includes the Voyager probes and the Galileo probes, as well as other probes.
When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible, teleoperated robots, or telerobots are used. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements, a telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator. The robot may be in another room or another country, or may be on a very different scale to the operator. For instance, a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery time. When disabling a bomb, the operator sends a small robot to disable it. Several authors have been using a device called the Longpen to sign books remotely. Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, are increasingly being used by the military. These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets. Hundreds of robots such as iRobot’s Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U.S. military to defuse roadside bombs or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in an activity known as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD).
Automated fruit harvesting machines
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single, menial job
Used to pick fruit on orchards at a cost lower than that of human pickers.
In the home
As prices fall and robots become smarter and more autonomous, simple robots dedicated to a single task work in over a million homes. They are taking on simple but unwanted jobs, such as vacuum cleaning and floor washing, and lawn mowing. Some find these robots to be cute and entertaining, which is one reason that they can sell very well.
Home automation for the elderly and disabled
The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for, but relatively fewer young people to care for them. Humans make the best carers, but where they are unavailable, robots are gradually being introduced.
The Care-Providing robot FRIEND. (Photo: IAT)
The Care-Providing robot FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and elderly people in their daily life activities, like preparing and serving a meal, or reintegration in professional life. FRIEND make it possible for such people, e.g. patients which are paraplegic, have muscle diseases or serious paralysis, e.g. due to strokes, to perform special tasks in daily life self-determined and without help from other people like therapists or nursing staff. The robot FRIEND is the third generation of such robots developed at the Institute of Automation (IAT) of University of Bremen within different research projects. Within the last project, AMaRob (AMaRob web page), an interdisciplinary consortium, consisting of technicians, designers as well as therapists and further representatives of various interest groups, influences the development of FRIEND. Besides covering the various technical aspects, also design aspects were included as well as requirements from daily practice given by therapists, in order to develop a care-providing robot that is suitable for daily life activities. The AMaRob project was founded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF – Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) within the “Leitinnovation Servicerobotik”.
The ANATROLLER ARI-100 is a modular mobile robot used for cleaning hazardous environments
In the hazardous and tight spaces of a building’s duct work, many hours can be spent cleaning relatively small areas if a manual brush is used. Robots have been used by many duct cleaners primarily in the industrial and institutional cleaning markets, as they allow the job to be done faster, without exposing workers to the harmful enzymes released by dust mites. For cleaning high-security institutions such as embassies and prisons, duct cleaning robots are vital, as they allow the job to be completed without compromising the security of the institution. Hospitals and other government buildings with hazardous and cancerogenic environments such as nuclear reactors legally must be cleaned using duct cleaning robots, in countries such as Canada, in an effort to improve workplace safety in duct cleaning.
Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, Blade Runner, Robocop, the Replicators in Stargate, the Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix, THX-1138, and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy; others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet, … Another common theme is the reaction, sometimes called the “uncanny valley”, of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that mimic humans too closely. Frankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in industry, but these robots carry out daily lives.
Manuel De Landa has noted that “smart missiles” and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, and they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.
Marauding robots may have entertainment value, but unsafe use of robots constitutes an actual danger. A heavy industrial robot with powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior can cause harm, for instance by stepping on a human’s foot or falling on a human. Most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers, but not all. Two robot-caused deaths are those of Robert Williams and Kenji Urada. Robert Williams was struck by a robotic arm at a casting plant in Flat Rock, Michigan on January 25, 1979. 37-year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, was killed in 1981; Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine.
Date Significance Robot name Inventor
1st century AD and earlier Descriptions of over a hundred machines and automata, including a fire engine, wind organ, coin-operated machine, and steam-powered aeliopile, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron Ctesibius, Philo, Heron, and others
1206 First programmable humanoid automata, consisting of a boat with four robotic musicians Robot band Al-Jazari
c. 1495 Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical knight Leonardo da Vinci
1738 Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Digesting Duck Jacques de Vaucanson
1800s Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted Karakuri toys Hisashige Tanaka
1921 First fictional automata called “robots” appear in the play R.U.R. Rossum’s Universal Robots Karel Čapek
1928 Humanoid robot, based on a suit of armor with electrical actuators, exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London Eric W. H. Richards
1930s Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World’s Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric Corporation
1948 Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors Elsie and Elmer William Grey Walter
1956 First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol’s patents Unimate George Devol
1961 First installed industrial robot Unimate George Devol
1963 First palletizing robot Palletizer Fuji Yusoki Kogyo
1973 First robot with six electromechanically driven axes Famulus KUKA Robot Group
1975 Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product PUMA Victor Scheinman
Al-Jazari’s programmable humanoid robots
Tea-serving karakuri, with mechanism, 19th century. Tokyo National Science Museum.
Main article: History of robots
Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. In Greek drama, Deus Ex Machina was contrived as a dramatic device that usually involved lowering a deity by wires into the play to solve a seemingly impossible problem.
In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called “The Pigeon”. Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water. Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that chimed the hours.
Al-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first programmable humanoid robots in 1206. The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.
Early modern developments
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da Vinci’s notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo’s robot, able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw. The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded in his Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In 1738 and 1739, Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck. The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor’s hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment. Complex mechanical toys and animals built in Japan in the 1700s were described in the Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery, 1796)
The first Unimate
The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (1799–1881), known as “Japan’s Edison” or “Karakuri Giemon”, created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys, some of which served tea, fired arrows drawn from a quiver, and even painted a Japanese kanji character. In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled torpedo. Based on patents for “teleautomation”, Tesla hoped to develop it into a weapon system for the US Navy.
In 1926, Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox, the first robot put to useful work. They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots, including one called Rastus, made in the crude image of a black man. In the 1930s, they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939 and 1940 World’s Fairs. In 1928, Japan’s first robot, Gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.
The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects, and use these stimuli to navigate.
The first truly modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960, and it was installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
A gynoid, or robot designed to resemble a woman, can appear comforting to some people and disturbing to others
See also: List of fictional robots and androids and Robots in literature
Robotic characters, androids (artificial men/women) or gynoids (artificial women), and cyborgs (also “bionic men/women”, or humans with significant mechanical enhancements) have become a staple of science fiction.
The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in Homer’s Iliad. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new armor for the hero Achilles, assisted by robots. According to the Rieu translation, “Golden maidservants hastened to help their master. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods.” Of course, the words “robot” or “android” are not used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical devices human in appearance.
The most prolific author of stories about robots was Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), who placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works. Asimov carefully considered the problem of the ideal set of instructions robots might be given in order to lower the risk to humans, and arrived at his Three Laws of Robotics: a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law; and a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. These were introduced in his 1942 short story “Runaround”, although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: “A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm”; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov’s short story “Liar!” (1941) that mentions the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics. Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.
Main list: Topic outline of robotics
* For classes and types of robots see Category:Robots.
* FIRST – For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology; an organization that founded various robotics competitions for elementary and high school students.
Notes and references
1. ^ “ROBOT” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010.
2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
3. ^ “Telecom glossary “bot””. Alliance for Telecommunications Solutions. 2001-02-28. Archived from the original on 2008-07-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070202121608/http://www.atis.org/tg2k/_bot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
4. ^ “About us”. http://www.emrotechnologies.com/.
5. ^ “Definition of a robot” (PDF). Dansk Robot Forening. Archived from the original on 2008-07-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20070628064010/http://www.dira.dk/pdf/robotdef.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
6. ^ “Robotics-related Standards Sites”. European Robotics Research Network. http://www.euron.org/resources/standards.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
7. ^ Lee, Dai Gil (2005). Axiomatic Design and Fabrication of Composite Structures. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195178777. http://books.google.com/books?id=JDOfVxRC8x8C&pg=PA513&lpg=PA513&source=web&ots=_iMgIErG60&sig=uo7dgICtMBdETyNieUmktCBSnHI. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
8. ^ Polk, Igor (2005-11-16). “RoboNexus 2005 robot exhibition virtual tour”. Robonexus Exhibition 2005. http://www.virtuar.com/click/2005/robonexus/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
9. ^ Harris, Tom. “How Robots Work”. How Stuff Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
10. ^ “Robot (technology)”. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/505818/robot. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
11. ^ “Robot”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/robot. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
12. ^ “Your View: How would you define a robot?”. CBC News. 2007-07-16. http://www.cbc.ca/technology/technology-blog/2007/07/your_view_how_would_you_define.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
13. ^ “Real Robots on the Web”. NASA Space Telerobotics Program. 1999-10-15. http://ranier.hq.nasa.gov/telerobotics_page/realrobots.html. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
14. ^ “The Grand Piano Series: The History of The Robot”. Nimbus Records. http://www.wyastone.co.uk/nrl/gp_robot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
15. ^ Marc Perton (2005-07-29). “Roboraptor review – this one has teeth (in the discussion below, several people talk about RoboRaptor as being a real robot.”. Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2005/07/29/roboraptor-review-this-one-has-teeth/. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
16. ^ a b Zunt, Dominik. “Who did actually invent the word “robot” and what does it mean?”. The Karel Čapek website. http://capek.misto.cz/english/robot.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
17. ^ Including Slovak, Ukrainian, Russian and Polish. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic rabota “servitude” (“work” in contemporary Bulgarian and Russian), which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-.
18. ^ “Čapek’s R.U.R.”. Karelcapek.net. http://www.karelcapek.net/rur.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
19. ^ Robot is cognate with the German word Arbeiter (worker). In Hungary, the robot was a feudal service, similar to corvee which was rendered to local magnates by peasants every year. “The Dynasties recover power”. http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/history/1848/reaction.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
20. ^ a b AAAI webpage of materials on robot ethics.
21. ^ AAAI compilation of articles on robot rights, Sources compiled up to 2006.
22. ^ Scientists Predict Artificial Brain in 10 Years, by Kristie McNealy M.D. July 29, 2009.
23. ^ Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind By Hans Moravec, Google Books.
24. ^ Robots Almost Conquering Walking, Reading, Dancing, by Matthew Weigand, Korea Itimes, Monday, August 17, 2009.
25. ^ a b Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man By JOHN MARKOFF, NY Times, July 26, 2009.
26. ^ The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era, by Vernor Vinge, Department of Mathematical Sciences, San Diego State University, (c) 1993 by Vernor Vinge.
27. ^ Gaming the Robot Revolution: A military technology expert weighs in on Terminator: Salvation., By P. W. Singer, slate.com Thursday, May 21, 2009.
28. ^ Robot takeover, gyre.org.
29. ^ robot page, engadget.com.
30. ^ Call for debate on killer robots, By Jason Palmer, Science and technology reporter, BBC News, 8/3/09.
31. ^ Robot Three-Way Portends Autonomous Future, By David Axe wired.com, August 13, 2009.
32. ^ New Navy-funded Report Warns of War Robots Going “Terminator”, by Jason Mick (Blog), dailytech.com, February 17, 2009.
33. ^ Navy report warns of robot uprising, suggests a strong moral compass, by Joseph L. Flatley engadget.com, Feb 18th 2009.
34. ^ New role for robot warriors; Drones are just part of a bid to automate combat. Can virtual ethics make machines decisionmakers?, by Gregory M. Lamb / Staff writer, Christian Science Monitor, February 17, 2010.
35. ^ “Biomass-Eating Military Robot Is a Vegetarian, Company Says”. FOXNews.com. 2009-07-16. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,533382,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
36. ^ Shachtman, Noah (2009-07-17). “Danger Room What’s Next in National Security Company Denies its Robots Feed on the Dead”. Wired. http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/07/company-denies-its-robots-feed-on-the-dead/. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
37. ^ Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 July 16). Cyclone Power Technologies Responds to Rumors about “Flesh Eating” Military Robot, pp. 1-2.
38. ^ Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 April 6). “Brief Project Overview”, EATR: ENERGETICALLY AUTONOMOUS TACTICAL ROBOT, pp. 22.
39. ^ WIRED: First Armed Robots on Patrol in Iraq
40. ^ WIRED: Armed Robots Pushed To Police
41. ^ America’s Robot Army
42. ^ The Present and Future of Unmanned Drone Aircraft: An Illustrated Field Guide; Inside the wild kingdom of the world’s newest and most spectacular species of unmanned aircraft, from swarming insect ’bots that can storm a burning building to a seven-ton weaponized spyplane invisible to radar. By Eric Hagerman, Popular Science, 02/23/2010.
43. ^ AAAI Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures 2008-2009 Study, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Accessed 7/26/09.
44. ^ Article at Asimovlaws.com, July 2004, accessed 7/27/09.
45. ^ a b Robotic age poses ethical dilemma; BBC News; 2007-03-07; retrieved on 2007-01-02;
46. ^ Asimov’s First Law: Japan Sets Rules for Robots, By Bill Christensen, livescience.com, May 26, 2006.
47. ^ Japan drafts rules for advanced robots, UPI via physorg.com, April 6th, 2007.
48. ^ Report compiled by the Japanese government’s Robot Industry Policy Committee -Building a Safe and Secure Social System Incorporating the Coexistence of Humans and Robots, Official Japan government press release, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, March 2009.
49. ^ Toward the human-Robot Coexistence Society: on Safety intelligence for next Generation Robots, report by Yueh-Hsuan Weng, China Ministry of the Interior, International Journal of Social Robotics, April 7, 2009.
50. ^ Evolving Robots Learn To Lie To Each Other, Popular Science, August 19, 2009.
51. ^ Research and Development for Next-generation Service Robots in Japan, United Kingdom Foreign Ministry report, by Yumiko Moyen, Science and Innovation Section, British Embassy, Tokyo, Japan, January 2009.
52. ^ Robots to get their own operating system, by Mehret Tesfaye Ethipian Review, August 13th, 2009.
53. ^ The Caterpillar Self-Driving Dump Truck, By Tim McKeough, fastcompany.com, Nov 25, 2008.
54. ^ “Robotics in practice: Future capabilities” by Joseph F. Engelberger. in “Electronic Servicing & Technology” magazine 1982 August.
55. ^ Michael Hahn (1997-04-01). “Fullerene Nanogears”. NASA. http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001535.html. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
56. ^ Techbirbal: Nanobots Play Football
57. ^ KurzweilAI.net: Utility Fog: The Stuff that Dreams Are Made Of
58. ^ (Eric Drexler 1986) Engines of Creation, The Coming Era of Nanotechnology
59. ^ Chris Phoenix (2003-12). “Of Chemistry, Nanobots, and Policy”. Center for Responsible Nanotechnology. http://www.crnano.org/Debate.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
60. ^ Nanotechnology pioneer slays “grey goo” myths. Institute of Physics Electronics Journals. 2004-06-07. http://www.iop.org/EJ/news/-topic=763/journal/0957-4484. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
61. ^ (1996) LEGO(TM)s to the Stars: Active MesoStructures, Kinetic Cellular Automata, and Parallel Nanomachines for Space Applications
62. ^ (Robert Fitch, Zack Butler and Daniela Rus) Reconfiguration Planning for Heterogeneous Self-Reconfiguring Robots
63. ^ John Schwartz (2007-03-27). “In the Lab: Robots That Slink and Squirm”. nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/27/science/27robo.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ei=5070&en=91395fe7439a5b72&ex=1177128000. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
64. ^ ((cite web|http://www.activrobots.com/RESEARCH/wheelchair.html|title=SRI/MobileRobots Centibot project))
65. ^ “Open-source micro-robotic project”. http://www.swarmrobot.org. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
66. ^ “Swarm”. iRobot Corporation. http://www.irobot.com/sp.cfm?pageid=149. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
67. ^ Knapp, Louise (2000-12-21). “Look, Up in the Sky: Robofly”. Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2000/12/40750. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
68. ^ “The Cutting Edge of Haptics”. MIT Technology review. http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=17363&ch=biotech&sc=&pg=1. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
69. ^ Robots Today and Tomorrow: IFR Presents the 2007 World Robotics Statistics Survey; World Robotics; 2007-10-29; retrieved on 2007-12-14
70. ^ Reporting by Watanabe, Hiroaki; Writing and additional reporting by Negishi, Mayumi; Editing by Norton, Jerry;Japan’s robots slug it out to be world champ; Reuters; 2007-12-02; retrieved on 2007-01-01
71. ^ Lewis, Leo; The robots are running riot! Quick, bring out the red tape; TimesOnline; 2007-04-06; retrieved on 2007-01-02
72. ^ a b Biglione, Kirk; The Secret To Japan’s Robot Dominance; Planet Tokyo; 2006-01-24; retrieved on 2007-01-02
73. ^ Robot Helpers, USA Today, April 11, 2004.
74. ^ Domestic robot to debut in Japan ; BBC News; 2005-08-30; retrieved on 2007-01-02
75. ^ Chamberlain, Ted; Photo in the News: Ultra-Lifelike Robot Debuts in Japan; National Geographic News; 2005-06-10; retrieved on 2008-01-02
76. ^ Yang, Jeff; ASIAN POP Robot Nation Why Japan, and not America, is likely to be the world’s first cyborg society; SFGate; 2005-08-25; retrieved on 2007-01-02
77. ^ “Nano technology | Computer | Robot | TOSY TOPIO – Table Tennis Playing Robot”. DigInfo News. http://www.diginfo.tv/2007/12/05/07-0601-d.php. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
78. ^ http://www.ifr.org/service-robots/statistics/
79. ^ “Contact Systems Pick and Place robots”. Contact Systems. http://www.contactsystems.com/c5_series.html. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
80. ^ “SMT pick-and-place equipment”. Assembleon. http://www.assembleon.com/surface-mount-assembly/pick-and-place-equipment/a-series/. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
81. ^ “Smart Caddy”. Seegrid. http://www.smartcaddy.net. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
82. ^ “The Basics of Automated Guided Vehicles”. Savant Automation, AGV Systems. http://www.agvsystems.com/basics/vehicle.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
83. ^ “SpeciMinder”. CSS Robotics. http://www.ccsrobotics.com/products/speciminder.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
84. ^ “ADAM robot”. RMT Robotics. http://www.rmtrobotics.com/tire_agv.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
85. ^ “Can Do”. Aethon. http://www.aethon.com/can_do_tug.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
86. ^ “Delivery Robots & AGVs”. Mobile Robots. http://www.mobilerobots.com/AGV.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
87. ^ “Dante II, list of published papers”. The Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.ri.cmu.edu/projects/project_163.html. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
88. ^ “Mars Pathfinder Mission: Rover Sojourner”. NASA. 1997-07-08. http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/rover/sojourner.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
89. ^ a b “Robot assisted surgery: da Vinci Surgical System”. Brown University Division of Biology and Medicine. http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2005_Groups/04/davinci.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
90. ^ “Celebrities set to reach for Atwood’s LongPen”. cbc.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/books/story/2007/08/15/longpen-trial.html. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
91. ^ Graham, Stephen (2006-06-12). “America’s robot army”. New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/200606120018. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
92. ^ “Battlefield Robots: to Iraq, and Beyond”. Defense Industry Daily. 2005-06-20. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/battlefield-robots-to-iraq-and-beyond-0727. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
93. ^ Shachtman, Noah (2005-11). “The Baghdad Bomb Squad”. Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.11/bomb.html?pg=3&topic=bomb. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
94. ^ Jeavans, Christine (2004-11-29). “Welcome to the ageing future”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4012797.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
95. ^ “Statistical Handbook of Japan: Chapter 2 Population”. Statistics Bureau & Statistical Research and Training Institute. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c02cont.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
96. ^ “Robotic future of patient care”. E-Health Insider. 2007-08-16. http://www.e-health-insider.com/comment_and_analysis/250/robotic_future_of_patient_care. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
97. ^ Martens, C., Prenzel, O., Gräser, A. (2007). “The Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I & II: Daily Life Independency through Semi-Autonomous Task-Execution”. I-Tech Education and Publishing (Vienna, Austria): 137–162. ISBN 978-3-902613-04-2. http://intechweb.org/downloadpdf.php?id=556.
98. ^ Ivlev, O., Martens, C., Gräser, A. (2005). “Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I and FRIEND-II with the dexterous lightweight manipulator”. Restoration of Wheeled Mobility in SCI Rehabilitation 17.
99. ^ a b Ho, C. C.; MacDorman, K. F.; Pramono, Z. A. D. (2008). “Human emotion and the uncanny valley: A GLM, MDS, and ISOMAP analysis of robot video ratings”. Proceedings of the Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. March 11–14. Amsterdam.. http://www.macdorman.com/kfm/writings/pubs/Ho2007EmotionUncanny.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
100. ^ *Manuel de Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, New York: Zone Books, 1991, 280 pages, Hardcover, ISBN 0-942299-76-0; Paperback, ISBN 0-942299-75-2.
101. ^ Kiska, Tim (1983-08-11). “Death on the job: Jury awards $10 million to heirs of man killed by robot at auto plant”. Philadelphia Inquirer. pp. A10. http://docs.newsbank.com/g/GooglePM/PI/lib00187,0EB295F7D995F801.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
102. ^ “Trust me, I’m a robot”. The Economist. 2006-06-08. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=7001829. Retrieved 2007-04-30.
103. ^ a b c Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). “The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments”. Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45–49. doi:10.2307/3391092.
104. ^ “Imitation of Life: A History of the First Robots”. http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n09/historia/turtles_i.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
105. ^ Waurzyniak, Patrick (2006-07). “Masters of Manufacturing: Joseph F. Engelberger”. Society of Manufacturing Engineers 137 (1). http://www.sme.org/cgi-bin/find-articles.pl?&ME06ART39&ME&20060709#article. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
106. ^ “Company History”. Fuji Yusoki Kogyo Co.. http://www.fujiyusoki.com/English/rekishi.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
107. ^ “KUKA Industrial Robot FAMULUS”. http://www.kuka-robotics.com/en/company/group/milestones/1973.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
108. ^ Deborah Levine Gera (2003). Ancient Greek Ideas on Speech, Language, and Civilization. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199256167. http://books.google.com/books?id=h5tKJvApybsC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=hephaestus+handmaidens&source=web&ots=AmE4CYagER&sig=qoE-R-FGa3CRe9fKPjBKCdk24C4.
109. ^ O’Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. “Heron biography”. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Heron.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
110. ^ “Earliest Clocks”. A Walk Through Time. NIST Physics Laboratory. http://physics.nist.gov/GenInt/Time/early.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
111. ^ a b Professor Noel Sharkey, A 13th Century Programmable Robot, University of Sheffield.
112. ^ “Leonardo da Vinci’s Robots”. Leonardo3.net. http://www.leonardo3.net/leonardo/books%20I%20robot%20di%20Leonardo%20-%20Taddei%20Mario%20-%20english%20Leonardo%20robots%201.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
113. ^ Wood, Gabby. “Living Dolls: A Magical History Of The Quest For Mechanical Life”, The Guardian, 2002-02-16.
114. ^ N. Hornyak, Timothy (2006). Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-3012-6.
115. ^ Cheney, Margaret (1989). Tesla, man out of time. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-419-1.
116. ^ US patent 613809
117. ^ “Tesla – Master of Lightning”. PBS.org. http://www.pbs.org/tesla. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
118. ^ “Robot Dreams : The Strange Tale Of A Man’s Quest To Rebuild His Mechanical Childhood Friend”. The Cleveland Free Times. http://www.freetimes.com/stories/13/35/robot-dreams-the-strange-tale-of-a-mans-quest-to-rebuild-his-mechanical-childhood-friend. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
119. ^ Scott Schaut (2006). Robots of Westinghouse: 1924-Today. Mansfield Memorial Museum. ISBN 0978584414.
120. ^ Owen Holland. “The Grey Walter Online Archive”. http://www.ias.uwe.ac.uk/Robots/gwonline/gwonline.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
121. ^ “Robot Hall of Fame – Unimate”. Carnegie Mellon University. http://www.robothalloffame.org/unimate.html. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
122. ^ “Comic Potential : Q&A with Director Stephen Cole”. Cornell University. http://www.arts.cornell.edu/theatrearts/CTA/Program%20Notes/comic%20potential.asp. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
123. ^ He wrote “over 460 books as well as thousands of articles and reviews”, and was the “third most prolific writer of all time [and] one of the founding fathers of modern science fiction”. White, Michael (2005). Isaac Asimov: a life of the grand master of science fiction. Carroll & Graf. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0786715189. http://books.google.com/books?id=EWbMiyS9v98C.
124. ^ R. Clarke. “Asimov’s Laws of Robotics – Implications for Information Technology”. Australian National University/IEEE. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/Asimov.html. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
125. ^ Seiler, Edward; Jenkins, John H. (2008-06-27). “Isaac Asimov FAQ”. Isaac Asimov Home Page. http://www.asimovonline.com/asimov_FAQ.html. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
126. ^ White, Michael (2005). Isaac Asimov: A Life of the Grand Master of Science Fiction. Carroll & Graf. pp. 56. ISBN 0-7867-1518-9.
* Cheney, Margaret [1989:123] (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Dorset Press. New York. ISBN 0-88029-419-1
* Craig, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Robotics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
* Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
* Sotheby’s New York. The Tin Toy Robot Collection of Matt Wyse, (1996)
* Tsai, L. W. (1999). Robot Analysis. Wiley. New York.
* DeLanda, Manuel. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. 1991. Swerve. New York.
* Journal of Field Robotics
* Robotics education website
Search Wikibooks Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Search Wikiversity Wikiversity has learning materials about Anthropomorphic Robotics
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Robots
Search Wiktionary Look up robot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
General news and developments
* robots.net general robot-related news and technological developments.
* International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR)
* International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR).
* Robotics and Automation Society (RAS) at IEEE
* Robotics Network at IET
* Robotics Division at NASA
* Human Machine Integration Laboratory at Arizona State University
* Robotics at DMOZ at the Open Directory Project
* List of robots at Communist Robot
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot”
Categories: Robotics | Robots | Czech loanwords | Words originating in fiction
Hidden categories: Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism | Articles needing cleanup from November 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia introduction cleanup from November 2009 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009 | Articles to be merged from January 2009 | All articles to be merged | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2010
* View source
* Try Beta
* Log in / create account
* Main page
* Featured content
* Current events
* Random article
* About Wikipedia
* Community portal
* Recent changes
* Contact Wikipedia
* Donate to Wikipedia
* What links here
* Related changes
* Upload file
* Special pages
* Printable version
* Permanent link
* Cite this page
* Bahasa Indonesia
* Norsk (bokmål)
* Norsk (nynorsk)
* Simple English
* Српски / Srpski
* Basa Sunda
* Uyghurche / ئۇيغۇرچە
* Tiếng Việt
Powered by MediaWiki
* This page was last modified on 2 May 2010 at 06:30.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
* Contact us
* About Wikipedia
Membuat Robot Explorer Hexapod
(Artikel lengkap baca pada majalah Elkom ed 4)
Guest Professor Univ. de Bourgogne, Prancis
Pada proyek robot kali ini, penulis memaparkan cara membuat robot berkaki 6 (hexapod) menggunakan 3 buah sensor, yaitu 1 sensor jarak SRF04 (Sonar Range Finder) dan 2 bh Sharp GP2D12. Dijamin dechhh penasaran dan menarik untuk dicoba J.
Robot ini bergerak berdasarkan informasi dari ketiga sensor jarak. Robot ini diharapkan dapat melakukan “eksplorasi” ke daerah yang dilaluinya, untuk memberikan informasi ke “pemiliknya” menggunakan kamera wireless misalnya, oleh karena itu robot ini dinamakan Explorer Hexapod. Gambar di bawah ini menampilkan blok rangkaian yang akan dibuat:
Gambar 1. Blok rangkaian robot Explorer Hexapod
Berikut ini ialah bahan – bahan yang diperlukan, yang paling penting tentunya ialah kerangka dari kaki hexapod ini, yang dapat Anda buat sendiri atau membeli kit yang sudah jadi :
1. 2 buah servo motor HS311
2. Body dan kaki hexapod
(Dapat membeli kit kaki hexapod lengkap dengan 2 bh servo HS311)
3. Min. System ATmega 8535, ATmega16 atau Atmega32
4. Driver Motor DC 293D/ deKits SPC DC Motor
5. 1 sensor jarak ultrasonic SRF 04 (jarak 3cm-3m)
6. 2 sensor jarak infrared SharpGP2D12(10cm -80cm)
7. Tempat baterai 9V 2bh
Berikut ini ialah konstruksi dari kaki hexapod standar, yang digerakkan dari putaran motor servo continuous. Servo ini dikendalikan dari port B.0-3 melalui Driver motor yaitu kit DC motor Driver menggunakan IC L293D (dapat menggunakan juga kit dekits SPC DC Motor) atau jika ingin lebih kuat lagi menggunakan IC H bridge L298. Perlu diingat, kaki servo ini ada 3 pin, cukup gunakan 2 kaki yang menggerakan motor DC di dalam servo tersebut saja.
Gambar 2. Susunan sisi kaki hexapod
Servo HS311 merupakan servo dengan torsi yang cukup besar untuk menggerakkan robot dengan beban maksimal 1.5kg.
Pertama, kita lihat dulu bagian sensor. Sensor SRF04 digunakan untuk mengetahui jarak depan robot, apakah ada penghalang atau tidak, yang mampu mendeteksi jarak dari 3cm hingga 3 meter. Sensor ini bekerja berdasarkan prinsip gelombang ultrasonic. Pencari jarak ini bekerja dengan cara memancarkan pulsa suara dengan kecepatan suara (0.9 ft/milidetik) berfrekwensi 40 KHz. Keluaran sensor ini dihubungkan ke Port C.0 dan Port C.1, dan dengan nilai trigger input sebesar 10 uS pada pulsa TTL. Alasan mengapa digunakan sensor ini, ialah karena sensor jarak ini paling banyak digunakan pada Kontes Robot Cerdas di Indonesia, sehingga pembaca pemula menjadi familiar. Anda dapat menambah sensor ini hingga 4 buah untuk digunakan pada sisi kanan, kiri dan belakang robot biar lebih akurat.
Gambar 3. Susunan kaki SRF04
Sedangkan 2 sensor infrared GP2D12 di sisi samping kanan dan kiri dapat mengukur jarak sejauh 10cm- 80cm dengan output analog, sehingga dapat langsung dihubungkan ke port A.0 dan port A.1 dari mikrokontroler AVR tersebut. Karakteristik dari sensor ini tidak linear, oleh karena itu idealnya perlu digunakan look up table untuk mengolah raw data dari sensor tersebut.
Hasil pembacaan sensor-sensor jarak ini diolah oleh mikrokontroler, untuk memutuskan gerakan yang akan dilakukan apakah maju, mundur atau belok. Dengan memutarnya servo, menyebabkan bagian kaki yang terhubung ke servo bergerak bergantian sehingga robot dapat berjalan.
‘Program Demo Robot Explorer Hexapod
‘By Mr. Widodo Budiharto
‘Univ. de Bourgogne 2007
‘deklarasi fungsi dan variabel
Declare Sub Initialize_ultrasonic()
Declare Function Ultrasonic_depan() As Integer
Dim Jarakdepan As Integer
Dim Jaraksampingkanan As Word
Dim Jaraksampingkiri As Word
Dim W As Word
Config Portb = Output
Config Portd = Input
Config Portc = Output
Config Adc = Single , Prescaler = Auto , Reference = Avcc ‘konfigurasi ADC
Call Initialize_ultrasonic ‘panggil fungsi
‘baca SRF04 untuk jarak depan
Print “jarak sampingkiri” ; Jaraksampingkiri
‘Demo jika ada halangan, maka belok kiri
If Jarakdepan > 40 Then
Portb = 8 ‘maju
Wait 2 ‘delay
Else if jarak depan 150 then
Portb = 0 ‘belok kiri
Function Ultrasonic_depan() As Integer
… ‘ set initial state pin trigger
… ‘ buat pulsa 5us @ 4 MHz
… ‘ ukur return pulse
Sub Initialize_ultrasonic ‘inisialisasi sensor ultrasonik
Gambar berikut merupakan hasil yang sudah jadi yang dapat berjalan dengan cukup cepat dan kuat karena menggunakan servo torsi tinggi dari Hitec.
Gambar 4. Robot in action a). Tampak samping b). Tampak depan
Untuk keperluan riset atau hobi, Anda dapat menambahkan kemampuan Artificial Intelligent menggunakan Fuzzy Logic, Algoritma Genetic atau Neural Network, agar robot ini menjadi robot yang cerdas. Silahkan baca artikel selanjutnya mengenai Neural Network di majalah kesayangan Anda ini.
4. Delta Hexapod robot
5. Situs-situs dan buku pendukung lainnya.
Cara Membuat Robot
Robot inidibuat untuk menyelesaikan misi tertentu. Misi robot yang dibuat adalah untuk menemukan dan memadamkan api lilin yang diletakkan pada pola ruang yang telah ditentukan. Aksi robot diawali dengan menjelajah pola ruang dengan memanfaatkan sensor Ultrasonik dan sensor Infrared sebagai pendeteksi penghalang (dinding), dan menemukan sumber nyala api dengan mengecek keberadaan cahaya ultraviolet menggunakan sensor UVtron. Sensor UVtron digunakan untuk memastikan adanya sumber nyala api lilin dan mengarahkan robot pada posisi nyala api lilin. Bila dalam proses scanning robot mendeteksi adanya nyala api lilin, robot akan melakukan manuver mengarah pada posisi api, bergerak mendekati api dan meniup nyala api dengan kipas. Robot ini dikontrololeh Mikrokontroler PIC 16F877A yang diprogram menggunakan Proton+ dengan bahasa Basic. Sehingga program robot lebih mudah untuk dipahami. Kecepatan scanning pada Mikrokontroler menggunakan kristal 20MHz.
Diagram Cara Kerja Robot
Cara Kerja Rangkaian
Pada robot ini dilengkapi dengan dua PIC 16F877A. Dimana pada PIC pertama digunakan untuk memproses semua input dan menghasilkan output. Input yang dihasilkan berasal dari PIC kedua, Infrared Proximity, Limit Switch, dan DIP Switch. Sedangkan output yang dihasilkan adalah gerakan motor servo sebagai kaki-kaki dari robot dan motor DC sebagai motor untuk kipas.
Sedangkan pada PIC kedua digunakan untuk memproses input-an yang berasal dari sensor Ultrasonik, sensor UVtron, dan sensor Infrared Sharp GP2D12. Output dari PIC kedua ini akan menjadi input-an untuk PIC pertama.
Cara Kerja Robot
Robot ini bekerja untuk mencari posisi titik api yang diwakili oleh lilin yang diletakan dalam ruangan labirin dan memadamkan api lilin tersebut dengan kipas. Pemilihan ruangan pada labirin menggunakan DIP SWITCH yang telah diatur, sehingga robot bergerak menuju ruangan sesuai yang diinginkan.
Robot ini dilengkapi dengan dua buah saklar (saklar PIC dan saklar motor) dan dua buah tombol (tombol ready dan tombol start). Untuk mengaktifkan robot ini posisikan kedua saklar pada posisi ON, kemudian tekan tombol ready. Setelah itu letakkan robot pada posisi HOME (lingkaran putih pada labirin) kemudian tekan tombol start maka robot akan berputar sampai posisi yang telah ditentukan. Setelah robot mencapai posisi yang telah ditentukan, maka robot akan mengeksekusi instruksi gerak atau jalan melewati lorong sambil mendeteksi ada atau tidaknya halangan melalui sensor Ultrasonik dan sensor Infrared Sharp GP2D12 yang sudah terpasang pada robot agar tidak menabrak dinding (halangan).
Ketika melewati lorong, robot telah dibekali algoritma pemetaan (navigasi) yang digunakan oleh robot untuk menentukan arah setelah mendapat persimpangan. Setelah robot memasuki sebuah ruangan dan robot telah mendeteksi garis putih yang ada di depan pintu (sensor infrared proximity aktif), maka robot akan mencari sumber nyala api dengan berputar 180º untuk mendeteksi sumber nyala api dalam ruangan tersebut.
Ketika sensor UVtron mendeteksi adanya sinar ultraviolet yang dipancarkan oleh nyala api, maka instruksi selanjutnya yaitu bergerak maju mendekati nyala api tersebut dan berhenti ketika mendapatkan lantai berwarna putih yang menandakan batas posisi lilin untuk dipadamkan. Lantai berwarna putih dideteksi oleh sensor infrared proximity. Saat mencapai batas posisi lilin (lantai berwarna putih) dan posisi sensor UVtron tidak lurus dengan posisi lilin, maka robot akan berputar 180° untuk mencari posisi titik api. Setelah posisi sensor lurus dengan posisi titik api, maka robot akan berhenti berputar dan mematikan lilin dengan kipas.
Kerangka robot ini terbuat dari acrylic 3 mmdengan dimensi robot 25 cm x 25 cm x 25 cm.
Menggunakan 7 buah motor RC Servo sebagai penggerak robot dan 1 buah motor DC sebagai penggerak kipas.
Spesifikasi Motor RC Servo HS-322HD
* Merupakan jenis motor servo standar 180º.
* 3 jalur kabel: power, ground, dan kontrol (sinyal).
* Sinyal kontrol mengendalikan posisi.
* Operasional dari motor servo dikendalikan oleh sebuah pulsa selebar ± 20 ms, dimana lebar pulsa antara 0.5 ms dan 2 ms menyatakan akhir dari range sudut maksimum.
* Konstruksi di dalamnya meliputi internal gear, potensiometer, dan feedback control.
* Operating Speed : 0.19sec/60º AT 4.8Volt
* Weight : 43 g
* Size : 40 x 20 x 37 mm
* Torque : 3,5 kg
Motor Servo HS-322HD
Motor servo jenis ini digunakan untuk menggerakkan kaki-kaki robot naik dan turun serta untuk menggerakkan robot maju dan mundur.
Spesifikasi Motor Servo Parallax Continous
* Merupakan jenis motor servo continous.
* 3 jalur kabel: power, ground, dan kontrol (sinyal).
* Sinyal kontrol mengendalikan posisi.
* Konstruksi didalamnya meliputi internal gear, potensiometer, dan feedback control.
* Power : Max. 6V DC
* Weight : 45 g
* Size : 40.5 x 20 x 38 mm
* Torque : 3,4 kg
* Average Speed : 60 rpm (tanpa beban dengan power 5V DC)
Motor Servo Parallax
Motor servo jenis ini digunakan untuk menggerakkan kaki tengah robot. Sehingga robot dapat berputar ke kanan dan ke kiri.
188.8.131.52 Spesifikasi Motor DC
* Catu daya : 3 Volt.
* Dapat berputar Clock Wise maupun Counter Clock Wise.
* 2 jalur kabel untuk power dan ground.
Motor ini digunakan untuk memutar kipas yang digunakan untuk memadamkan api lilin.
* Baterai kotak 8,4 volt sebagai sumber untuk rangkaian mikrokontroler dan sensor.
* 4 buah bateraiAA 1.2 2500 mAH volt sebagai sumber untuk motor Servo dan motor DC.
Baterai 8.4 volt dan baterai 1.2 volt
Terdiri dari 3 buah sensor ultrasonik ping parallax, 2 buah infrared Sharp GP2D12, sensor proximity, phototransistor, dan Uvtron Hamamatsu.
Spesifikasi Sensor Ultrasonik Ping Parallax
* Memancarkan sinyal ultrasonik sesaat dan menghasilkan pulsa output yang sesuai dengan waktu pantul sinyal ultrasonik saat kembali menuju sensor.
* Target dapat diketahui dengan mengukur lebar pulsa pantulan.
* Tegangan catu : 5V DC.
* Konsumsi arus : 30mA typ; 35mA max.
* Jarak : 2cm sampai 3m.
* input trigger : positive TTL pulse, 2us min, 5us typ.
* Echo Pulse: positive TTL pulse, 115us to 18.5 ms.
* Echo Hold-off : 750US from fall of Trigger pulse.
* Burst Frequency : 40KHz for 200us.
* Delay before next measurement – 200us.
* Size : 22 mm x 46 mm x 16 mm.
Pin-pin dan pengkabelan pada ultrasonik ping parallax
Sensor ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi penghalang atau dinding yang ada di sekitar sensor.
Spesifikasi Sensor Infra Merah Sharp GP2D12
* VCC : -0.3 to + 7Volt (4.5 to 5.5Volt (recommended)
* Voutput : -0.3 to Vcc + 0.3
* Operating temperature : -10 to 60ºC (25ºC (recommended))
* Storage temperature : -10 to 70ºC
* Distance Range : 4cm to 80cm
Pin-pin pada sensor Sharp GP2D12
Sensor ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi penghalang atau dinding yang ada di sekitar sensor, ketika arah gerak robot tidak lurus.
Spesifikasi Sensor Infrared Proximity
* Infrared sebagai transmitter.
* Photodiode sebagai receiver.
* Menggunakan driver pembanding agar hasil pembacaan sensor menjadi digital.
Sensor Infrared Proximity
KetKterangan Gambar Sensor Proximity
+ Photo Diode
– Photo Diode
Sensor ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi garis putih yang ada di depan pintu ruang atau batas posisi lilin (area berwarna putih).
Spesifikasi Limit Switch
* Memiliki dua kontak yaitu NO dan NC
* Maksimum arus 5 A dengan tegangan 125 VAC
* Maksimum arus 3 A dengan tegangan 250 VAC
Sensor ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi jika robot menabrak dinding atau penghalang.
Spesifikasi Uvtron flame detector
* Mendeteksi gelombang ultraviolet pada range 185 – 260nm.
* Bekerja berdasarkan filter yang dibuat.
Uvtron R2868 dan C2704 Driver Board
Sensor ini digunakan untuk mencari posisi titik api yang ada dalam suatu ruangan.
Kontroler Menggunakan mikrokontroler PIC 16F877A.
Spesifikasi PIC 16F877A
* 8kB code, 368B data, 256B EPROM, Ports A-E, 2xACMP, 2xCCP, PSP, 3xTimers, MSSP, USART, 8x10bit ADC.
Related Posts with thumbnails for blogger
Heboh di china orang orang pada men…
Free Download Linux Ubuntu 10.04 LT…
Perbedaan Intel Core i3, i5, dan i7
Hacker Bobol PIN dari SPBU
Game Microsoft Terbaik 2010
di 12:21 PM